Friday, February 7, 2020
PPE Report - Essay Example The wide category of specialized health services; is in sharp contrast to the generalized services offered by other health facilities like clinics. The hospitals have effective organizational structure. The top management of the hospital comprises the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, and the Head of Departments. The middle management of the hospital comprises Sectional Heads. The sectional heads are specialists in their professions. This management structure ensures proper reporting relationships between the hospital staffs and the management. Hospitals have the Institutional Ethics Committee. This committee comprises an interdisciplinary team made up of community representatives, non-medical practitioners, and healthcare professionals. The main purpose of the committee entails community education, case consultation, intra-institutional communication, and policy development; during the health policies or decisions which arise during healthcare. Health facilities have job division practices, which depend on hospital sections and departments. The cancer specialists mainly operate in the cancer centre; however, they can consult other hospital staffs from other departments for effective service delivery. Likewise, the eye specialists operate in the Eye Surgery Centre. This separation of staffs according to specialization is referred to as job division. The unique hospital features enables provision of superior health services. Hospitals utilize an effective Health Information System to oversee proper decision making. Team members share vital information through the system when offering services to patients. This enhances collaboration of the health staffs. Patients can also find and request for a suitable doctor, through the health
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Elusiveness of Good Work in The Insider Essay In Ã¢â¬Å"Good Work, Well Done,Ã¢â¬ Howard Gardner (1999) argues that Ã¢â¬Å"the goal of carrying out good work is harder to reach when conditions are unstable and market forces are allowed to run unchecked. Ã¢â¬ This, according to him, was the dilemma Ã¢â¬Å"faced by workers in every domainÃ¢â¬ as existing authority systems in most working environments are designed to penalize whistle blowers rather than to correct unethical business practices. GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is exemplified in Michael MannÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999) film, The Insider. Based on the true story of tobacco industry whistle blower Jeffrey Wigand, MannÃ¢â¬â¢s film is a brilliant movie depicting the intrinsic motivations, values, and expectations that oblige otherwise ambitious, loyal employees into sacrificing profitable careers, and even themselves, for the sake of the majority. The film owes majority of its success to MannÃ¢â¬â¢s directorial genius, exemplary performances by Russell Crowe, Al Pacino, Christopher Plummer, and Dianne Venora; and in part to the compelling story of an altruistic employee who decides to give up his lucrative career for a nobler cause. The Insider is interesting in its genuine depiction of many corporate workersÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences, the working environment, and the conflict that ensues due to incongruence between the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal values and company expectations for loyalty in its organization. By following the narrative of a tobacco company executive who exposes the unethical business practices of the corporation he works for, the film raises the issues of professional ethics as they relate and interact with business ethics in a corporate setting where the concerns of a healthy bottomline override other matters of concern (Gardner, 2002). More importantly, the film captures the complex nature of whistle blowing as Ã¢â¬Å"an extreme that defies the reasonable expectation of the most prominent versions of ethicsÃ¢â¬ (Grant, 2002, p. 396) and the impact of this action on the personal life of the whistle blower. Thus, the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s title takes an ironic twist as whistle blowing demands that a worker, or an insider, subvert the norms and expectations of the culture he is in and in the process rendering him an outsider. This aspect of whistle blowing is particularly depicted in the dilemma confronting the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main protagonist, Jeffrey Wigand (Russell Crowe), a scientist working as an executive in the research department of Brown and Williamson, one of the tobacco industryÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest companies. Wigand is terminated by the corporation because of his refusal to cooperate with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s questionable practice involving the use of nicotine to make cigarettes more addictive that in the scientistÃ¢â¬â¢s view was causing major damage to public health. Clearly, WigandÃ¢â¬â¢s case confirms Joseph McCaffertyÃ¢â¬â¢s (2002) observation that Ã¢â¬Å"more often, those who try to bring to light unethical or illegal practices by their employers are criticized, treated like outcasts, fired, or worse. Ã¢â¬ For instance, he experiences being harassed and receiving death threats shortly after being fired from the company, ostensibly made to ensure that he keeps his silence and honors his confidentiality agreement. It is not surprising that insiders like Wigand often experience extreme pressure and personal conflict even after they have severed ties with the company they work for. Threats of retaliation through physical or financial harm and legal action often force employees who leave their jobs due to the mismatch between their ethical principles and work expectations vis-a-vis the priorities of the company they work for. The existence of legal and social mechanisms that punish the act of whistle-blowing, and the ineffectiveness of existing legal systems to support those who come forward to tell external stakeholders about illegal or unethical business practices contribute to the difficulties faced by whistle blowers. McCafferty, 2002) Ultimately, these impediments condition the majority of workers into a state of compliance despite their knowledge of wrongdoings in their workplace. Accordingly, Grant (2002) argues that individuals like Wigand display a sense of ethics that surpass conventional ethical behavior and Ã¢â¬Å"exceed the minimal level that is required to sustain civil life. Ã¢â¬ (p. 96) Given the lack of incentives and the threats posed by this action on their personal life and career opportunities, whistle blowers are clearly driven by a strong belief in moral and ethical ideals contrary to the conventional notion of whistle blowers as vindictive or errant employees. WigandÃ¢â¬â¢s character affirms GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s (2002) contention; Instead of being deterred by the harassment and the gloomy prospects awaiting him in his career, he becomes more determined decision to spill Brown and WilliamsonÃ¢â¬â¢s dirty secret in a 60 minutes interview with CBS reporter Lowell Bergman (Al Pacino). Wigand;s character therefore fits GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s description of whistle blowers as Ã¢â¬Å"saints in a secular culture. Ã¢â¬ Throughout the film, WigandÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of justice shines through despite his emotional battles and inner turmoils as he encounters numerous hardships such as being separated from his family and from company efforts to discredit his name. It is therefore only fitting that Wigand is vindicated when Bergman is able to counter the negative publicity and he finds a more fulfilling career that allows him to finally do Ã¢â¬Å"good workÃ¢â¬ by teaching. Thus, The Insider is an illuminating look at how existing political and economic structures inhibit individuals from doing Ã¢â¬Å"good workÃ¢â¬ as defined by Gardner (2002). It is also an incisive commentary on how society, in general, conditions employees to normalize unfair business practices by valuing material incentives more than those based on social or moral ones. Consequently, whistle blowers, and others intent on doing Ã¢â¬Å"good work,Ã¢â¬ are often forced to carry their battles and ethical struggles alone, left vulnerable to the machinery of Big Business, and treated with contempt by their collegues and families.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
A Cure For Shyness? Many of us experience a pounding heartbeat or shaking when faced with a public situation, especially if we think we are going to be judged by others. When does this cross the line between normal and a mores serious disorder? Social anxiety disorder, a relatively newly recognized disorder by the psychiatric profession, involves many of the same symptoms as shyness. What makes the difference between a case of the jitters and a real disorder? Social Anxiety Disorder was first recognized by the American Psychiatric Association as a disorder in 1980 (1). It is characterized by such physical symptoms as increased heartbeat, blushing, dry mouth, trembling and shaking, difficulty swallowing, and twitching in the muscles (2). Many people with social anxiety disorder also have depression. A study in France found that 70 percent of patients who developed social anxiety disorder before the age of 15 also suffered from major depression (3). Diagnostic criteria, according to the current definition of social anxiety disorder given by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed. (DSM-IV), requires a persistent fear of at least one social situation which involves exposure to unfamiliar people or scrutiny by others. The patient must fear that he or she will act in this situation in a way that will cause embarrassment, and avoid the situation or experience extreme anxiety or a panic attack if fac ed with the situation. The patient must also realize that the fear is unreasonable. The avoidance or anxiety must interfere to a large extent with the normal routine, functioning, social activities, or relationships with the person (1). This last criterion, a significant interference ... ...%3Dhave51822&cont=&msg=No+Session+cookies&sserv=no 10) Coming to you direct , from Expanded Academic http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/have51822?http_rc=400&class=session&sev=temp&type=session&cause=http%3A%2F%2Fweb6.infotrac.galegroup.com%2Fitw%2Finfomark%2F430%2F157%2F36658653w3%2Fpurl%3Drc2_EAIM_1_coming%2Bto%2Byou%2Bdirect______________________________________________%26dyn%3Dsig!1%3Fsw_aep%3Dhave51822&cont=&msg=No+Session+cookies&sserv=no 11) Selling Shyness - How doctors and drug companies created the "social phobia" epidemic , from Expanded Academic http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/have51822?http_rc=400&class=session&sev=temp&type=session&cause=http%3A%2F%2Fweb2.infotrac.galegroup.com%2Fitw%2Finfomark%2F746%2F514%2F36545191w3%2Fpurl%3Drc1_EAIM_0_A64993728%26dyn%3D23!xrn_59_0_A64993728%3Fsw_aep%3Dhave51822&cont=&msg=No+Session+cookies&sserv=no
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Numerous study have found widespread racial bias in US criminal justice system. A new report issued by a coalition of civil rights organizations calls the Ã¢â¬Å"massively and pervasively biasedÃ¢â¬ treatment on blacks and Hispanics by the US police and courts the major civil rights problem of the twenty-first century entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Justice on Trial : Racial Disparities in the American Criminal Justice System.Ã¢â¬ The study finds that minorities in the US face discriminatory treatment at every stage of the judicial process, from arrest to incarceration. The 95 page report was issued by the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights based in Washington DC. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s findings show that blacks, Hispanics and other minorities face unfair targeting by police and other law enforcement officials, racially biased charging and plea bargaining decisions by prosecutors and discriminatoryÃ sentencing by judges.In a report released from Washington DC- Amnesty International criticized Us Federal and state justice systems as riddled with racial discrimination. The report, Racism and the Administration of Justice, citesÃ as evidence the disproportionate rate of minorities incarcerated, sentenced to death, and executed in the US. In its report, Amnesty International cited cases of racial profiling, unlawful use of force, unlawful shootings, andÃ deaths in custody affecting minorities from at least 10 states in the US. African Americans and other minorities suffer disproportionate rates of incarceration, accounting for 60 percent of the 1.7 million people currently in jail or prison in the US. African American men are imprisoned at more than eight times the rate of white men, and one third of all young African American men are in jail or prison, on parole, or on probation. African American women are imprisoned at eight times, and Hispanic women at four times, the rate of white women.The overwhelming majority of victims of police brutality, unlawful shootings and deaths in custody are members of racial minorities. A study of 2,000 murder cases in Georgia found that the odds of a death sentence in cases in which blacks murdered whites were s much as 11 times higher than when whites murdered blacks. A study found that in Philadelphia a black defendant is four times more likely to receive aÃ death sentence than a white defendant. Racism that perverts the course of justice is a daily fact of life for many in the US, yet this plague of bias is over looked, ignored or openly tolerated by police chiefs , prison wardens, judges and our political leaders.Today a full two-thirds of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s two million prisoners are people of color. One million are African American and 400,000 are Hispanic/Ã Latino. People of color represent one third of those arrested for drug crimes, but two-thirds of those sent to prison. Whites and racial minorities live inÃ completely different worlds when it comes to the American criminal justice system.. Since as far back as the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s minorities have been ov er-represented in federal and state prisons. Minorities were then 25% of all prisoners while only about ten percent of the total population.The Kerner Commission warned in its report: Ã¢â¬Å"Our nation is moving towards two societies, one black, one white-separate and unequal.Coramae Richey Mann, Unequal Justice, suggests that white Americans view the classic rapist as a Ã¢â¬Å"black man,Ã¢â¬ the typical opium user as a Ã¢â¬Å"yellow man,Ã¢â¬ the archetypal knife wielder as a Ã¢â¬Å"brown man,Ã¢â¬ the Ã¢â¬Å"red manÃ¢â¬ as a drunken Indian, and each of these people of color as collectively constituting the Ã¢â¬Å"crime problemÃ¢â¬ . The race or ethnicity of the stereotyped perpetrator varies between African American, Hispanic, or Native American depending on the nature of the crime or the section of the country.These prejudicial images provide a social-psychological under girding upon which many of the discriminatory aspects of the criminal justice system areÃ constructed.Racial Discrimination is defined as including any distinction or impairing the exercise of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s human rights. The discriminatory treatment of people of color in the criminal justice system fits squarely underÃ this standard.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Upon initial research of the rich heritage of California the two minority groups that stood out as especially influential in historic California and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society are the Native Americans and Hispanic Americans. To better understand and identify with these minority groups we must identify the common themes within their day to day life. By researching each cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s common family traditions, religious beliefs, arts entertainment, and language one can gain a greater appreciation of many different kinds of people, and in turn have more effective relationships in a multicultural society. Hispanics comprise CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest minority group. They make up 37.6% of the total population (US Census, 2011). The term Hispanic defines aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The children then teach their parents English along the way, creating a strong bond between them in process (Hirsh, 2002). Hispanic art, food, and entertainment all have a common theme; they are all fun, light-hearted, yet fulfilling and rich in cultural heritage. On one side, Mexican culture in particular loves to make fun of itself. There are many depictions in song and art of lazy Mexicans in large sombreros with thick mustaches eating burritos. On the other hand artists like Diego Rivera paint large murals depicting rich historical events like the revolution, in bold colors on controversial topics (This Old, n.d.). Hispanic Americans have a strong tie to their culture and display it in their cuisine. Rice and beans are staples to la familia, together they provide a complete protein, and are inexpen sive. Spicy peppers and hot sauce provide antibacterial and digestive health qualities that were imperative to provide healthy meals in Mexico because the water supply isnÃ¢â¬â¢t guaranteed to be safe for drinking. Historically, many tomato products were introduced to the United States by Mexico, including burritos, tacos, other Mexican cuisine and even ketchup (Sowell, 1981). Religion and politics in Hispanic culture is tied in with the strong family social unit. Over 90% of Hispanics in California are Roman Catholic. They especially respect Patron SaintÃ¢â¬â¢s day; to many, it is more important than oneÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday. The Virgin of Guadalupe (the Virgin Mary) andShow MoreRelatedThe New Deal And World War II994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshad an effect on race relations in the American West. President RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s New Deal was an attempt to fix the hardships of the Great Depression. The Great Depression brought about a change in ideology and opinion that made the New Deal possible because of public support to fix the burdens felt by many Americans, not just whites. World War II brought fear, intolerance and increased racism toward minority groups in the West, specifically Japanese and Hispanic. Class and ethnic differences, as wellRead MoreHistory Of The Old West1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshistory of the Old West without giving credit to the Hispanic people who influenced its customs, culture, towns, and lives. The contributions of Hispanics to the evolution and success of America are woven into almost every portion of the nation s history. To visualize America untouched by Latinos is to imagine a country without much of its folklore and many of its achievements. The United States has a rich history that goes back over 200 years. Hispanics have always played vital roles in building thisRead MoreAlbert Kinsey Helped Change The American Public s Preconceptions On Sexuality935 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEssay Question #2 Albert Kinsey helped change the American PublicÃ¢â¬â¢s preconceptions on sexuality by publishing two bestselling books from 1947 to 1953 on the topic. Titled Ã¢â¬Å"American Sexual BehaviorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Sexual Behavior in the Human FemaleÃ¢â¬ , these books both confirmed and challenged the generally held beliefs dealing with marriage, sexual gratification, and sexual orientation. Sex was deemed important for a healthy marriage, adultery was frequent and homosexuals werenÃ¢â¬â¢t weird anomalies. Hugh HefnerRead MoreEssay about Education Challenges Facing Hispanics in the United States1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages When one thinks about Hispanics, all too often the image of a field full of migrant workers picking fruit or vegetables in the hot sun comes to mind. This has become the stereotypical picture of a people whose determination and character are as strong or stronger than that of the Polish, Jewish, Greek, or Italian who arrived in the United States in the early 1900s. Then, the center of the new beginning for each immigrant family was an education. An education was the ladder by which the childrenRead MoreAnd Amerindian Stock885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand Amerindian stockÃ¢â¬ (Gutierrez 47). According to Ruben Rumbaut 2009 publication, Pigments of Our Imagination: The Racialization of the Hispanic-Latino Category, Ã¢â¬Å"Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Salvadorans, Colombians, and the many other nationalities from Latin America and even Spain itself - were not Ã¢ â¬ËHispanicsÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËLatinosÃ¢â¬â¢ in their countries of originÃ¢â¬ stressing not only the wide range of country of origin, but also the racial conceptions that those immigrants from those countries may haveRead MoreNotes From A Native Daughter And Ernesto Galarza s Piece Barrio Boy1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJoan Didion s article Notes From A Native Daughter and Ernesto Galarza s piece Barrio Boy both talk a lot about how life was like in Sacramento while they were growing up. In Ernesto Galarza s article, he writes about living in lower Sacramento and Didion s essay, talks about life in a different area of Sacramento, California. Ernesto Galarza s Sacramento is filled with a lot of Mexican and other Latin American people living in a particular area of the city. Barrio Boy s Sacramento took placeRead MoreJoan Didions Barrio Boy1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJoan Didion s article Ã¢â¬Å"Notes From A Native DaughterÃ¢â¬ and Ernesto Galarza s piece Ã¢â¬Å"Barrio BoyÃ¢â ¬ both talk a lot about how life was like in Sacramento while they were growing up. In Ernesto Galarza s article, he writes about living in lower Sacramento and Didion s essay, talks about life in a different area of Sacramento, California. Ernesto Galarza s Sacramento is filled with a lot of Mexicans and other Latin American people living in a particular area of the city. Barrio Boy s Sacramento tookRead MoreThe Colonization Of New Mexico830 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesoccurs when more species populate an area. After the Mexican American war the Mexican border went up in San Ysidro California creating disagreement between territories. Conquest produced local, regional, and national patterns of change and development. The conquest of New Mexico and the Unites Sates Southwest now had distinguishable contradictions and tensions. In 1519 Spanish arrived in Mexico and further fought in the Spanish American war in 1898. Latinos were racially considered contaminated, cowardlyRead MoreCultural Group Characteristics And Demographics1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmaintains tribal affiliation or community attachmentÃ¢â¬ are considered American Indian or Alaska Natives (AIAN) (Norris, Vines, Hoeffel, 2012). There are 565 Federally Recognized Tribes as well as many other tribes and bands, more than 100, that are not federally recognized. There are various differences in culture between each tribe. Geographically, the majority (largest proportion) of the American Indian and Alaska Native population lives in the West, with the second largest proportion is locatedRead MoreAmericanization Of The American Dream1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof freedom and the American Dream, as well as a desire by many to escape the oppressive regimes of their native country, and to flee famine or economic hardship. America truly was, and still is a land of opportunity. Americanization had its beginnings in late night adult classes that took place in factories and shops, as well as Americanization programs for children in public schools in cities like Chicago and Cleveland. The purpose of those classes was to teach English, American history, and the skills
Friday, December 27, 2019
The Impact of Sexual Child Abuse in America Child abuse has been going on for many years. There are many forms of child abuse, however, there is one that is far worse than the rest; sexual abuse. Children has a natural instinct to trust too easily and believe what people tell them, especially if they know those people. Statistics show very high figures of sexual child abuse in America. When children undergo sexual abuse, it impacts their whole being. There are physical, emotional, and psychologic effects that could impact a child not only short term but long term as well. When a child is victimized sexually, they are not aware of the victimization. These types of victimizations could last years before it is forced to stop. One of the sources describes a story where a women shares her experience of sexual child abuse. The story will explain what she went through emotionally after the incident. Even though it was a one-time victimization, it still had a long term effect. Educating chi ldren and adults about how to recognize the signs of sexual abuse could be a step closer towards helping innocent children who are being sexually victimized all around the United States. Summary of Literatures Definition of Sexual Child Abuse To begin, the common definition of sexual child abuse is referred to, in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, as a type of maltreatment that refers to the involvement of the child in sexual activity to provideShow MoreRelatedChild Abuse1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Doug mikel Child Abuse Sociology 111 Tues./Thurs. 8a-9:15a Tina Harrell 9/21/2014 Imagine living a life you fear, one you have to keep a secret. Always pretending to be happy and carefree when deep down thinking, Please don t let this day be the last. Living in a house where painful marks and scars are hidden by long sleeves, and jeans. Looking over your shoulder wondering when the next assault is going to be. Ã¢â¬Å"Almost five children die every day as a result of child abuse.Ã Ã More than threeRead MoreChild Molestation And Its Effect On Children1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaware of the nature of the crime or offense. One of the most traumatizing experiences that a child can ever encounter in their adolescent life is sexual abuse. Child molestation has been inflicted on many children throughout history and most will agree that it is a harmful and despicable act, however do we know why it occurs? Do we know what causes child sexual abuse and does it have the same effect on every child? Are some children even aware of the fact that they are being victimized? Th ere are manyRead MoreThe Trauma of Childhood Sexual Abuse Essay1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAn estimated 39 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse exist in America today (Darness2Light, 2009a ). This figure continues to grow daily as perpetrators of this crime continue in this destructive path. The definition of child sexual abuse is the force, coercion, or cajoling of children into sexual activities by a dominant adult or adolescent. Sexual abuse of children includes touching (physical) sexually including: fondling; penetration (vaginal or anal using fingers, foreign objects orRead MoreChild Abuse979 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesChild Abuse 2 Just about all children have many different experiences that will have a major impact on their lives before they reach full maturity. A child can face a lot of dangerous things from the environment surroundings them which might seriously affect their whole life. The definition of Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Child abuse is any action from adult to a child that can be harmful to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s body or mental (Children Welfare Information Gateway 2007). In theRead MoreThere Are Many Different Forms Of Child Sexual Abuse. Sexual1436 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare many different forms of child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse can be perpetrated by a relative or a stranger. But the most common of sexual abuse is committed by a beloved relative. Ratican (1992) defines childhood sexual abuse is a sexual act performed over and over between an adult and child (1992). The effects of childhood sexual abuse can last into adulthood and effect the way that a person thinks or t heir outlook of life. The effect of this act has a negative impact on the psychological patternRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChild abuse has long been an ongoing social problem; this abuse has been one of the repeatedly difficult accusations to prove in our criminal justice system. Child abuse causes many years of suffering for victims. Children abused suffer from chemical imbalances, behavioral issues and are at high risk for becoming abusers or being abused in adult relationships. This cycle of learned behavior and suffering will be a hopeless reoccurring problem unless the criminal justice system and protocols for abusersRead MoreEssay on The Gravity of Domestic Violence in America1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFor generations, the gravity of domestic violence in America has been disregarded and glossed over; perhaps it is because 60 percent of all domestic violence takes place at home. Domestic violence is defined as, the situation in which an intimate partner or someone you live with attacks you and tries to hurt you, often including physical assault, sexual assault, and bullying. Ã¢â¬Å"Every year, more than 3 million children witness domestic violence in their homes.Ã¢â¬ (safehorizon.org) Domestic violence atRead MoreEssay on Child Abuse: The Epidemic That Must Cease 1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Child abuse is epidemic in many countries as well as the United States. It is estimated that every thirteen seconds a child is abused in some manner: physically, sexually, emotionally or by neglect (Friedman). Each year, there are over 3 million reports of child abuse in the United States involving more than 6 million children. Child abuse can be reduced with proper education of the parents and with greater public awareness. Child abuse is the physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or neglectRead MoreEffects of Domestic Violence on Children1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprevalent social issue in America today. First, who is affected by domestic violence. Second, the impact of domestic violence on children. Third, the social harm of domestic violence is illustrated. This paper argues that domestic violence has tremendous effects on children. What makes domestic violence a social problem rather then a personal problem? Domestic violence 20 years ago was framed as a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issue. Domestic violence is a pattern of behaviors including physical, sexual, and psychologicalRead MoreThe Long Term Psychological Effects Associated with Sexual Assault959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe long term psychological effects associated with sexual assault includes, depression, substance use, anxiety, PTSD, and decreased self esteem (Foa Riggs, 1993; Resick, 1993). The authors of this article supports current literature which proposes that African American children receives inadequate or inappropriate sexuality socialization and sexual abuse prevention in their cultures and families which may affect their disclosure of sexual assault in adulthood (Washington, 2001;Wyatt, 1992). Comaz-Diaz
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Fiscal policy, as we know it today, is meant to mitigate unemployment and stabilize the economy through aggregate demand. Despite dismal unemployment numbers, politicians and policy-makers continue to use and be optimistic about the effectiveness of fiscal policy in this regard. Policy as we have seen over the past five years has had dismal effect on the unemployment numbers we are seeing today. It seems we need a policy that will tackle lagging aggregate demand as well as the employment problems. A direct-job creation effort will work to create the differences in aggregate demand and effective demand creating equilibrium and filling the void that the current Keynesian fiscal policy leaves. Keynesian Ideas The origins of many ideasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Keynes idea is that there is a spending multiplier model that shows that $1 introduced into the economy flows and circulates into smaller and smaller pieces; ultimately yielding a final aggregate impact number that is much larger than the original amount spent. This model can be applied to each variable of aggregate demand in order to increase the GDP. (GDP=AD=C+I+G+X) In this model if government spending increases by $1, half of that dollar will circulate in the market, and the other half of that 50 cents or 25 cents with flow into the economy, in a continual process. That first 50 cents in additional consumption is the Marginal Propensity to Consume factor (MPC) . With that MPC of 50 cents, the multiplier of any new round of marginal spending, based on Keynes model would be, $1/ (1-mpc) or $1-.5) =$2 of increased spending. Therefore, $2 is created by each dollar introduced into the economy. Essentially if $400billion put into the economy through government spending brings back a rise in income of $600 billion, then the multiple would be 1.5 (Keynes, 1936, 151-174). With greater aggregated demand there is more demand for goods and services (GDP) at any given price level. So, with greater demand for goods and services, there is more need for firms to produce them, and therefore unemployment would fall. A number of moves can be taken in the event of a recession to aid in recovery, the typical fiscalShow MoreRelatedNew Classical Macroeconomics Arose From The Monetarism And Rational Expectation School Essay922 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesspontaneously, which could solve the unemployment, recession and a series of macroeconomic issues. Keynesian economists believe that changes in the money supply will lead to changes in effective demand that will changes in the total economy. For economic cycle fluctuation, Keynesian economists believe that is a disequilibrium phenomenon. In 1960s, Keynesian economists appealed to the Phillips curve, which means monetary or fiscal policy will lead to lower unemployment rate and cause higher inflationRead MoreMeg Guild . Mr.Bare . Economics . 31 April 2017. Market942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMeg Guild Mr.Bare Economics 31 April 2017 Market Place Essay Five Key Questions about Macroeconomics Policy The recession in 1974Ã¢â¬â1975 and two other back to back recessions in 1979Ã¢â¬â1982, which sent the employment rate to 11%. The inflation rate rose into double digits then plummeted. A period of Great Moderation came after 1985, and the recession of 1990Ã¢â¬â1991 was more manageable than the previous recession. Unfortunately, this period of tranquility was followed by the Great Recession whichRead MoreKeynesian Theory During The Great Depression949 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesestablishment of the Keynesian theory during the Great Depression, there was a continuous rivalry between Keynesians and monetarists. The ongoing debate was about which model can most accurately and correctly explain economic instability and which theory provides the best suggestions on how to achieve constant and steady economic growth. There are fundamental differences in these two approaches, for example over the usefulness of government intervention through fiscal policies, monetary aggregatesRead Mo reJohn Maynard Keynes s Economic Theories Essay1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMaynard Keynes was born in 1883 and passed in 1946. He was an economist, journalist and financier, known for his economic theories. The majority of his theories have to do with prolonged unemployment. He believed there would be no automatic self-adjustment and that the economy could stagnate in continuous unemployment or inflation. Keynes believed that the economy is susceptible to unexpected changes in spending behavior and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t self-adjust to a desired macro equilibrium. When there are changing expectationsRead MoreClassical Vs Keynesian Economics1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesClassical and Keynesian economics are both accepted schools of thought in economics, but each had a different approach to defining economics. The Classical economic theory was developed by Adam Smith while Keynesian theory was developed by John Maynard Keynes. Similarities: One of the most surprising similarities between the two theories is that John Keynes developed his theory based on the Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. Keynes did not entirely disagree with Adam Smith but rather, expanded the theory basedRead MoreFiscal Policy And Its Effects On Economic Growth1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFiscal policy is a tool that is used by the government to correct fluctuations in the economy. Fiscal policy involves the government manipulating the level of government expenditure and/or rates of taxes to affect the level of aggregate demand (Sloman and Sutcliffe, 2001, p.633). The business cycle is inter-linked with this policy as it illustrates the short-term increase and decrease in the economy, noted as periods of recession and expansion. The idea of fiscal policy is simple when the economyRead MoreKeynesian, Monetarist, Fiscal Policy, Unemployment, Inflation898 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKeywords: Keynesian, Monetarist, Fiscal policy, Unemployment, Inflation The Keynesian-Monetarist Debate When looking from both side of the Keynesians and Monetarist argument, we notice that both sides are correct in different terms. How unemployment is resolved in a labor market is opposed on the Keynesian side. While the Monetarist looked at the quantity of money, which should be increasing at a constant rate. The Monetarist reduce the money supply, which reduces the spendingÃ¢â¬â¢s and increases theRead MoreMacroeconomic Theories Of Macroeconomics And Classical Economics999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseconomies. With microeconomics, macroeconomics is one of the two most general fields in economics. There are two major macroeconomic theories that economists use to describe the economy. Those theories are Keynesian and Classical. Each theory has a different approach to the economic study of monetary policies, consumer behaviors, and government spending. A few distinctions separate the two theories. Classical economics is the theory that free markets will restore full employment without government interventionRead MoreInsight From Theory And History1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinteraction have emerged throughout the years. Two of the most influential theorist that have come to the fore front have been John Maynard Keyes, with his theory of Keynesian economics and Milton Friedman with his idea of monetarism. While both economists have had major influence on modern day economic policies, both theorist have contradicting ideas, this paper will aim to take a look at both Keynes and FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s theories respectively and look at the application of these theories in the real world. JohnRead MoreA Study of Keynesian Economics1073 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhich fiscal policies might activist Keynesian economists recommend to help a depressed economy regain full employment? Explain how they work. Keynes and Keynesian economists propose two large categories of measures to help a depressed economy regain full employment. These are either monetary measures or fiscal measures. Monetary measures rely on the decrease of interest rates and the reasoning behind this approach is as follows. The individual in an economy has two basic option of utilizing